The structure of the power of observation-woodmam

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The structure of the power of observation

  (1) Senses

  A What sensation is

  Sensation is a form of observational power.

  Sensation is the ability of the sensory organs to respond to certain stimuli from outside the body, and is the ability of the human brain to reflect directly on the individual properties of the object objects (including the human body) that act directly on the sensory organs. For example, visual sensation is the ability of the eyes to reflect light; visceral sensation is the ability of the brain to reflect changes in the activity of internal organs.

  B. Characteristics of sensation

  The nature of sensation is the fundamental characteristic of sensation. Lenin pointed out that "inevitably in sensation there is also quality." There are natures and distinctions within any one sensory field. For example, vision manifests itself as red, yellow, green, blue, white, grey, black, etc.; hearing is distinguished by sound, timbre and loudness; and taste is distinguished by sourness, sweetness, bitterness, spiciness and saltiness.

  Sensory intensity is a characteristic of the senses in terms of quantity. It determines the intensity of information and the functional state of the senses. When a person suddenly walks from a dark room to a bright outdoor area, they cannot see anything at first, and only after a few seconds do they gradually see things clearly. This is the transition from weakness to strength. The opposite is true for the transition from strength to weakness.

  The temporal aspect of sensation is characterised by the continuity of sensation. It determines the duration and length of the action of the information and the functional state of the sensory organs, and is expressed in the latency and inertia of sensation. Latency means that when information is applied to the sensory organs, sensation takes some time to occur; inertia means that sensation does not disappear immediately after the information has ceased to act, i.e. it acts afterwards, e.g. "ringing in the ears" after leaving a noisy environment.

  Extensibility is a spatial characteristic of sensation. It is mainly determined by the spatial distance at which the information acts and the functional state of the sensory organs. For example, distance in vision, range in hearing, etc.

  C Classification of sensations

  External sensation: It is the sensory organ that receives external stimuli and reflects the properties of external objects, it is further divided into vision, hearing, smell, taste and skin sensation. They are the functions of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body respectively.

  Internal sensations: are sensations that reflect the different states of internal organs as a result of the sensory organs receiving stimuli from within the body. Examples include hunger, thirst, faintness, hallucinations, etc.

  Proprioception: A type of proprioceptor between the external and internal surfaces of the body that reflects the movement and position of the body parts. For example, the sense of movement, which reflects and identifies the body's own state of movement and health, and the sense of balance, which reflects and identifies the rate and direction of movement of the body (mainly the head).

  (2) Perception

  A What is perception?

  Perception is another form of observation, more advanced and comprehensive than the sensory form.

  Perception occurs on the basis of sensation, but it is not a simple addition or patchwork of sensations; it takes on a new nature.

  Perception is the individual's overall reflection of the parts and properties of an object, expressed as an overall awareness of the object, a discernment of the object's comprehensive properties or a preliminary interpretation of the object's meaning.

  B General characteristics of perception

  Selectivity. In the same instant, some objects or some properties or parts of objects are reflected preferentially, i.e. some objects are selectively used as objects of perception from among many objects, thus making the object of perception particularly clear, while the rest of the objects become the background of the object of perception and are more ambiguous. This is typical of the selectivity of perception.

  Comprehension. People always perceive the object of perception based on their existing experience and knowledge, and use words to mark it out. Because people always have different experiences and knowledge, they often perceive the same perceptual object very differently. People who have a lot of experience and expertise in a certain field will have a much deeper perception of the object in that field than others, while the opposite is true. For example, a person who has no idea about architectural design will not necessarily have a strong perception even if a perfectly designed drawing is placed in front of him.

  Wholeness. The individual reflects the overall phenomenon of the perceptual object, and can perceive the perceptual object with different properties as an integrated and complete unity. For example, an apple has a round shape, a certain hardness, a certain colour and a certain smell, and when we perceive them, we can grasp them as an indivisible whole.

  Constancy. Within a certain range, when the conditions of perception change, the individual object of perception can still maintain a certain degree of constancy. For example, if a person walks from 1 metre to 5 metres away from us, although the image of the person on our retina is reduced to 1/5th of its height, we feel that the height of the person remains largely unchanged.

  C. Classification of perception

  Perception is generally classified as visual, auditory, tactile, compound, spatial, temporal and kinesthetic perceptions.

  People mainly use visual perception when observing nature, watching pictures, sculptures, gymnastic performances and ball games, etc. When enjoying movies and television, it is the audio-visual perception that works, and in war, it is the visual, auditory, tactile and complex perceptions that work. Spatial perception mainly includes distance, orientation, size, shape and three-dimensional perception. Time perception is always achieved through the medium of measuring time, which may be the cyclical phenomena of nature, such as the change of seasons and the alternation of day and night, or the physiological state of the body, such as the sleep cycle and the menstrual cycle.

  (3) Perception

  In the actual process of perception, it is difficult to distinguish between sensation and perception, and there is always a part of you and a part of me. For example, colour is always the colour of an object, sound is always made by something, and hard and soft properties are always those of an object, which in turn always has colour and hardness. Thus, people refer to sensation and perception together as perception.

  It is in the process of perception that the power of observation is formed; apart from the process of perception, there is no power of observation. If a person does not have any perception, or if he has perception without perceiving any external object, he will not have the power of observation.

  Someone abroad had an adult subject stay in a special laboratory designed to prevent him from perceiving a single external object. After a period of time, the subject began to hallucinate, followed by a state of extreme alertness and a concomitant occlusion phobia. After a further period of time, the subject's interest in the environment completely disappears and he begins to turn his attention to himself, developing apprehension and losing his powers of observation.

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