Systematic approach-woodmam

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The purpose of observation, sometimes scientific observation, is to know and understand the objective world as it is, so as to grasp the laws of its movement and development and to provide a theoretical basis for the dynamic transformation of the world. Therefore, observation must follow the principle of objectivity and strive to obtain true and accurate observation results. Objectively and truthfully reflecting what is being observed is the primary condition for successful observation.

  (3) "Goose, goose, goose, bend your neck and sing to the sky" - the key features method

  "Goose, goose, goose, bend your neck and sing to the sky. White feathers float in green water, red palms pluck the green waves."

  This poem by the distinguished poet Luo Binwang from the early Tang Dynasty is still widely circulated today. Luo Binwang, who was only seven years old at the time, was able to write such a great poem because he was a good observer of geese and captured the main features of their form and habits.

  An important way to improve your powers of observation is to grasp the main features of the object of observation and make relatively static and focused observations. On the basis of comparison, the main features of a particular category of things or the individual salience of a particular thing can be initially generalised and summarised.

  The key features method is a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of observation. It requires not only initial observation, analysis and judgement, but also the involvement of memory.

  The key features method requires that when observing something, the main phenomena and characteristics of the object being observed are recognised. This is in response to the fact that some people are usually unable to distinguish between the main and secondary phenomena in their observations, or always pay attention to those phenomena that are interesting, peculiar and that they love to see while ignoring the main content.

  For example, if we observe a tortoise, if we ask "What are the main features of the tortoise?" Many people would probably say that the turtle has two small eyes, a short tail, four feet and a body hidden under a shell.

  Things have essential characteristics that set them apart from other things. When observing things or phenomena using the key features method, attention must be paid to grasping the characteristics of the thing or phenomenon, depending on the purpose and object of the observation.

  (4) The Book of Insects - The Method of Thoughtful System

  "Anyone who has seen a praying mantis will very clearly notice that its slender waist is very long. Not only is it very long, it is also exceptionally strong. Compared to its long waist, the thighs of the mantis are a little longer. Moreover, two rows of very sharp, serrated-like teeth grow beneath its thighs. Behind these two rows of sharp serrations, there are also some large teeth, three in total. In short, the mantis' thighs are literally two rows of knife-like jagged teeth. When the mantis wants to fold its legs up, it can tuck each leg in between these two rows of serrations, which is very safe and does not hurt itself.

  If the mantis's thighs are like two rows of slashing saw teeth, then its lower legs can be described as two rows of slashing saws. There are many more serrations growing on the calves than on the thighs. There are also some differences between the serrations on the calves and those on the thighs. The calf serrations also have sharp, hard hooks at the end, which are like gold needles. In addition to this, there was a knife with a double-sided edge growing from the serrations, like the kind of scissors used to repair various flowering branches in a curved shape ......"

  Observation of anything is not done at once, it needs to be done patiently, carefully and repeatedly. The more times you observe, the better you will be able to grasp the essence of things, to distinguish between falsehood and truth, chance and necessity. The more thorough, systematic and comprehensive the observation of the subject, the more effective the observation will be.

  The successful use of systematic observation depends on the long-term stability of attention, which is directed not only to the event itself, but also to the patterns in the development of the object under observation. This requires the observer to follow the same thing repeatedly at different times and under different conditions, in order to understand the process of development and change, to grasp the laws, and to make accurate analysis and judgements about similar situations. For example, it takes a year or even several years to observe the cloudiness of the moon, or several years to observe the growth pattern of a particular species.

  Using the circumscribed systematic method of observation, one does not swallow the whole thing, but uses one's brain, sifting, comparing and analysing so as to arrive at an objective understanding that conforms to the pattern.

  (5) Methodical - the sequential shift method

  Observe a goldfish: from the overall order, its leaves are diamond-shaped, divided into three parts: the upper head, the middle carapace and the lower tail, before the gills is the head, after the anus is the tail, and between the gills and the anus is the carapace. In terms of local structure, the head, for example, has a mouth at the front, bulging eye bags and eyes on both sides, two nostrils in front of the eyes, and a piece of gill cover on each side, the rear edge of which covers the gill holes and can open and close in concert with the movement of the mouth, allowing water to flow in from the mouth and out from the gills incessantly.

  ......

  "People often think too highly of what they have to do, when in fact they can succeed by simply starting with the simplest tasks and moving forward step by step." To observe properly, one must first learn to look at things in a planned and sequential manner, to observe the same thing from different angles and in different orders or to observe different things in the same order, so as to grasp the whole and substance of the object of observation.

  The order of observation can be the different spatial order of the thing being observed, such as from top to bottom, from left to right, from east to west, from near to far, etc. It can also be the order of the different structural components of the thing being observed, such as from the beginning to the end, from the surface to the inside, from the whole to the part and then to the whole.

  When observing different types of things in different orders, the sequential analysis method of moving from the whole to the part and then from the part to the whole is often used. For example, when observing natural scenes such as street scenes, parks and mountains, the method of orientation is often used from near to far or from far to near; while when observing an event, the sequence of development must be in accordance with the beginning (cause) - middle (passage) - result of time; when observing a bone specimen of the "human skeletal structure", the structure of the skull, torso and limbs can be observed in In the case of bone specimens of the 'human skeletal structure', the structure of the head, trunk and limbs can be observed as a whole.

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