Classification of thinking-woodmam

3. Classification of thinking

  In terms of abstraction, it can be mainly classified as

  (1) intuitive behavioral thinking

  Directly linked to the material activity of thinking, also known as perceptual-motor thinking. Children's initial thinking is often intuitive action thinking. Athletes' mastery of skills and techniques also requires intuitive action thinking as a foundation. This kind of thinking is mainly coordinated perception and action, in direct contact with external things to produce the initial generalization of intuitive action, perception and action is interrupted, thinking will also be terminated.

  (2) Concrete image thinking

  Thinking with concrete representations as the material, is the primary stage of general image thinking. It draws on distinctive, vivid representations and language. Often used in the creation of literature and art.

  (3) Abstract logical thinking

  Abstract concepts as the form of thinking, is the core form of human thinking. It mainly relies on concepts, judgments and reasoning to think, is the most basic and most widely used human way of thinking. All normal people have the ability to think logically, but there must be a difference between high and low.

  In terms of purpose, it can be divided into.

  (1) Ascending thinking

  The individual experience provided by practice is the starting point, and the individual experience is raised to the universal understanding. Most of the individual thinking from the daily live experience, too direct and personalized, and therefore does not have universal guidance, its authenticity to be tested in practice, and eventually rise to universal understanding.

  (2) Solving thinking

  Thinking around the problem, relying on existing knowledge to find the intermediate link between the current situation, so that the problem can be solved. Such as children to answer math problems, first analyze the known conditions, look at the problem, and finally find the bridge between the conditions to the problem.

  (3) Decisive thinking

  Thinking centered on regulating future experimental processes or predicting their effects. It follows the three principles of specificity, developmental transformation, and comprehensive balance.

  Divided in terms of intellectual qualities, it can be divided into.

  (1) Reproductive thinking

  It is thinking that relies on past memories. The original application of what has been learned belongs to this category.

  (2) Creative thinking

  Relying on past experience and knowledge, but is the synthesis of their organization to form something new. For example, several mathematical formulas that have been learned are combined and applied to a specific problem. Those who are said to have a genius for invention are those who are good at this kind of creative thinking.

  From the point of view of thinking skills, can also be divided into.

  (1) Inductive thinking

  From a specific example, deduce their general laws and common conclusions of thinking.

  (2) Deductive thinking

  Application of general laws to a specific case of thinking. In logic is also called deductive reasoning. It is from the general principles, principles and extrapolation to individual specific examples of thinking methods.

  (3) Critical thinking

  Thinking while evaluating and critiquing one's own ideas or hypotheses. Critical thinking has traditionally been emphasized in problem solving. Critical thinking includes six elements such as independence, self-confidence, thinking, non-confidence in authority, open-mindedness, and respect for others.

  (4) Focused thinking

  From a lot of information, to find a logical connection, so as to derive a certain conclusion; several solutions to compare and study, so as to derive a solution to belong to this kind of thinking.

  (5) Lateral thinking

  The use of "outside" information to find a way to solve the problem of thinking, as the eye's lateral vision. Lateral thinking is a way of thinking that is inspired by other areas.

  (6) divergent thinking

  Also called divergent thinking. The same problem to explore a variety of answers, the most common is a problem in mathematics or the word in the language multiple meanings.

  (7) evidence-based thinking

  Is to use their knowledge and experience to verify a conclusion of thinking. The structure of evidence-based thinking includes a thesis, an argument, and a way of arguing. Every person uses proof-taking thinking every day.

  (8) Reverse thinking

  Thinking in the opposite direction to see what the result is.

  (9) Lateral thinking

  Simply put, think left, think right, think ahead. This kind of thinking is mostly from the things related to find a breakthrough in solving the problem. Lateral thinking is mostly around the same problem from different angles to analyze, or in the analysis of the various things related to find the answer.

  (10) Progressive thinking

  From the current step as the starting point, to a deeper goal as the direction, step by step deeper to reach the thinking. Like the multi-step operation in mathematical operations.

  (11) Imaginative thinking

  Is thinking in association, which is based on the known material through a new fit to create a new image of thinking, is the process of from one to the other.

  (12) decomposition thinking

  A problem is broken down into parts, from each part and its interrelationship to find the answer.

  (13) Reasoning thinking

  Through judgment, reasoning to answer questions. It is also a logical thinking. First to analyze a thing, judgment, and then draw conclusions and so on.

  (14) Contrast thinking

  Through the comparison of two identical or different things to think, to find the similarities and differences of things and their nature and characteristics.

  (15) Cross-thinking

  From one end to find the answer, at a certain point to temporarily pause, and then from the other end to find the answer, also pause at this point, the two cross-merge communication ideas to find the correct answer. In solving more complex problems often use this kind of thinking, such as "Wei Wei to save Zhao".

  (16) Transformation thinking

  In the process of solving problems encountered obstacles, the problem from one form into another form, so that the problem becomes simpler and clearer.

  (17) jump thinking

  Skip certain intermediate links in things, omitting certain secondary processes, directly to the end.

  (18) Intuitive thinking

  Thinking that comes into contact with the nature of things at once and violently, it is to draw conclusions and then argue. This kind of thinking requires the usual accumulation of knowledge of the nature of things. Intuitive thinking consists of manifest consciousness → subconsciousness → manifest consciousness constitutes a dynamic overall structure, distinguished from other forms of thinking by wholeness and leapfrogging.

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