Identifying cognitive errors-woodmam

IV. Operation method

  The general procedures and technical skills for rational emotional detachment are as follows.

  1. Identify automatic thoughts

  The so-called automatic thoughts are the values that we have formed, our understanding and judgment of external things and phenomena. For example, some people naturally attribute their poor test scores to their own stupidity, some children think they are smart and just didn't learn properly, and some children give up on themselves and think they are not a good kid.

  We can take the "self-induction" method to constantly discover and identify their own automatic thoughts, in learning, life may wish to ask themselves a few more "why". For example, "Why did I do this?" "Why did I succeed?" "Why didn't I do better?" And so on.

  In this case, when she was frustrated with her peers, Mickey Joel's thoughts such as "I have to be liked by other children or I am not good enough" and "Other people should approach me and be friends with me" were the automatic thoughts she had when she failed in social interaction. The thoughts.

  2. Identifying cognitive errors

  Generally speaking, it is also easier to identify our own automatic thoughts, but we do not easily recognize the error of such automatic thoughts, or even take them for granted without argument.

  At this point, we have to present evidence for and against our automatic thoughts, analyze which are emotional facts (anger, sadness, grief, depression, etc.) and which are cognitive errors (absolute claims, negative self-evaluations, etc.), and then focus on the latter and generalize.

  Socratic questioning and cross-examination are more effective in identifying cognitive errors, and in response to our own irrational and exaggerated thoughts, we can ask ourselves straightforward and challenging questions, "What evidence do you have to prove this point of view?" "Is it possible that everyone else can fail but you?" "Should everyone else do what you think they should do?" "What reason do you have to demand that things happen the way you think they should?"

  When you find that your defense has become justified, you will truly realize: my thoughts turn out to be unrealistic and unfounded; some of my thoughts are reasonable and some are not; I must replace unreasonable beliefs with reasonable ones.

  3. Strengthen the act of self-verbalization and give alternative thoughts

  Human thoughts are internalized language, dominated by self-talk or unvoiced utterances. That is, the words or sentences we often tell ourselves become our own thoughts and become an important reason for governing behavioral habits. Therefore, after we discover our cognitive errors, we should stop telling ourselves these words or sentences repeatedly and replace it with new rational internalized language.

  The counselor asked Mikiel to say out loud, "I am just as good as the other children. I don't need to be a good person just because they like me." This is to reinforce her self-talk behavior and give alternative thoughts. Adolescent children's thinking is still predominantly concrete-image based and their internal language is not yet as developed as that of adults. Therefore, the counselor asks her to practice this alternative sentence out loud to help her correct her misperceptions when she encounters frustration in making friends. As she becomes more proficient in using this alternative idea, outgoing speech will slowly transform into unvoiced internal speech.

  4. De-centering

  While refuting our own misperceptions, it is important to eliminate the idea that we think we are the center of others' attention. Often, when we are depressed and anxious, it is easy to feel that our words and actions are being "judged" by others, and therefore, we feel vulnerable, powerless, and defeated. For example, Michiel had the wrong perception - "It's too hard to make friends, and I shouldn't have to do this on my own." Both her parents and teachers, in an effort to reduce her loneliness, would give her extra compensation when she was sad, which ended up reinforcing her centering tendencies and creating a vicious cycle.

  Often, we have to learn the right skills to promote good habits while channeling emotions.

  Chapter 6 Repetitive Training Method

  I. Explanation

  Habit is a power stereotype, the result of long-term accumulation and reinforcement of conditioned reflexes, so it must be formed only after long-term, repeated training. Strict requirements, repeated training, is the most basic method of forming good habits.

  The ancient scholars of China attach great importance to the training of behavior habits, pay attention to the consistent style of words and actions. Xun Cuo has said: "not hear not as hear, hear not as see, see not as know, know not as do, learn wisdom education to do just." The ancient people compiled their moral requirements into the "Three Character Classic", "Zhu Bo Lu ruling family motto", etc., so that people remember and repeatedly trained in accordance with the requirements, the effect is very obvious.

  Foreign educators also attach great importance to the training of behavioral habits. Locke once said: "Children are not educated with rules can be educated well, rules are always forgotten by them. If you think they have something they must do, you should take advantage of all the time, and even create it when possible, to give them an indispensable connection, so that they are fixed in them. This will enable them to develop a habit which, once developed, will easily and naturally take effect without the aid of memory."

  Proletarian educators attach even more importance to practice and training. Yang Xianjiang once said, "Our morality is not in empty inner cultivation, but in practical revolutionary training." The most important reason for the strict discipline and good habits of our revolutionary army, apart from ideological education, is training.

  Educators, both ancient and modern, have emphasized the importance of training because it enables a solid conditioned reflex to be formed between the organism and the environment. Practice has proven that true education is not in the teaching, but in the training. If our habit training is only superficial verbal words, then such habits must have no real vitality, and over time, it is also easy to develop a bad style of inconsistent words and actions. Only repeated training can form a natural, consistent and stable power stereotype, which is determined by the human physiological mechanism. That is why it is said that without training, there is no habit.

  The training method is especially important for our growing adolescents, because the formation of adolescent character often does not begin with concepts first, but is experienced and trained from practice. It is still difficult for teenagers to understand some of the major principles, but as they grow older, they slowly understand them, and then the habits become as natural as their second nature.

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